Calculate PI


Public Class Tester

    Public Shared Sub Main
      Console.WriteLine(FindPi(500))

    End Sub
    Private Shared NumberDigits As Integer

    Public Shared Function FindPi(ByVal digits As Integer) As String
        ‘ —– Calculate Pi to the specified number of digits,
        ‘       based on the formula:
        ‘          Pi/4 = arctan(1/2) + arctan(1/3)
        Dim result As New System.Text.StringBuilder(“PI=3.”)
        Dim digitIndex As Integer
        Dim divFactor As Integer

        ‘ —– Build an array that will hold manual calculations.
        NumberDigits = digits + 2
        Dim targetValue(NumberDigits) As Integer
        Dim sourceValue(NumberDigits) As Integer

        ‘ —- Perform the calculation.
        divFactor = 2
        ArcTangent(targetValue, sourceValue, divFactor)
        divFactor = 3
        ArcTangent(targetValue, sourceValue, divFactor)
        ArrayMult(targetValue, 4)

        ‘ —– Return a string version of the calculation.
        For digitIndex = 1 To NumberDigits – 3
            result.Append(Chr(targetValue(digitIndex) + Asc(“0″c)))
        Next digitIndex
        Return result.ToString
    End Function

    Private Shared Sub ArrayMult(ByRef baseNumber() As Integer, _
            ByRef multiplier As Integer)
        ‘ —– Multiply an array number by another number by hand.
        ‘       The product remains in the array number.
        Dim carry As Integer
        Dim position As Integer
        Dim holdDigit As Integer

        ‘ —– Multiple each base digit, from right to left.
        For position = NumberDigits To 0 Step -1
            ‘ —– If the multiplication went past 9, carry the
            ‘       tens value to the next column.
            holdDigit = (baseNumber(position) * multiplier) + carry
            carry = holdDigit \ 10
            baseNumber(position) = holdDigit Mod 10
        Next position
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ArrayDivide(ByRef dividend() As Integer, ByRef divisor As Integer)
        ‘ —– Divide an array number by another number by hand.
        ‘       The quotient remains in the array number.
        Dim borrow As Integer
        Dim position As Integer
        Dim holdDigit As Integer

        ‘ —– Process division for each digit.
        For position = 0 To NumberDigits
            ‘ —– If the division can’t happen directly, borrow from
            ‘       the previous position.
            holdDigit = dividend(position) + borrow * 10
            dividend(position) = holdDigit \ divisor
            borrow = holdDigit Mod divisor
        Next position
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ArrayAdd(ByRef baseNumber() As Integer, ByRef addend() As Integer)
        ‘ —– Add two array numbers together.
        ‘       The sum remains in the first array number.
        Dim carry As Integer
        Dim position As Integer
        Dim holdDigit As Integer

        ‘ —– Add each digit from right to left.
        For position = NumberDigits To 0 Step -1
            ‘ —– If the sum goes beyond 9, carry the tens
            ‘       value to the next column.
            holdDigit = baseNumber(position) + addend(position) + carry
            carry = holdDigit \ 10
            baseNumber(position) = holdDigit Mod 10
        Next position
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ArraySub(ByRef minuend() As Integer, ByRef subtrahend() As Integer)
        ‘ —– Subtract one array number from another.
        ‘       The difference remains in the first array number.
        Dim borrow As Integer
        Dim position As Integer
        Dim holdDigit As Integer

        ‘ —- Subtract the digits from right to left.
        For position = NumberDigits To 0 Step -1
            ‘ —– If the subtraction would give a negative value
            ‘       for a column, we will have to borrow.
            holdDigit = minuend(position) – subtrahend(position) + 10
            borrow = holdDigit \ 10
            minuend(position) = holdDigit Mod 10
            If (borrow = 0) Then minuend(position – 1) -= 1
        Next position
    End Sub

    Private Shared Function ArrayZero(ByRef baseNumber() As Integer) As Boolean
        ‘ —– Report whether an array number is all zero.
        Dim position As Integer

        ‘ —– Examine each digit.
        For position = 0 To NumberDigits
            If (baseNumber(position) <> 0) Then
                ‘ —– The number is nonzero.
                Return False
            End If
        Next position

        ‘ —– The number is zero.
        Return True
    End Function

    Private Shared Sub ArcTangent(ByRef targetValue() As Integer, _
            ByRef sourceValue() As Integer, _
            ByVal divFactor As Integer)
        ‘ —– Calculate an arctangent of a fraction, 1/divFactor.
        ‘       This routine performs a modified Maclaurin series to
        ‘       calculate the arctangent. The base formula is:
        ‘          arctan(x) = x – x^3/3 + x^5/5 – x^7/7 + x^9/9 – …
        ‘       where -1 < x < 1 (it’s 1/divFactor in this case).
        Dim workingFactor As Integer
        Dim incremental As Integer

        ‘ —– Figure out the “x” part, 1/divFactor.
        sourceValue(0) = 1
        incremental = 1
        workingFactor = divFactor
        ArrayDivide(sourceValue, workingFactor)

        ‘ —– Add “x” to the total.
        ArrayAdd(targetValue, sourceValue)
        Do
            ‘ —– Perform the “- (xy)/y” part.
            ArrayMult(sourceValue, incremental)
            workingFactor = divFactor * divFactor
            ArrayDivide(sourceValue, workingFactor)
            incremental += 2
            workingFactor = incremental
            ArrayDivide(sourceValue, workingFactor)
            ArraySub(targetValue, sourceValue)

            ‘ —– Perform the “+ (xy)/y” part.
            ArrayMult(sourceValue, incremental)
            workingFactor = divFactor * divFactor
            ArrayDivide(sourceValue, workingFactor)
            incremental += 2
            workingFactor = incremental
            ArrayDivide(sourceValue, workingFactor)
            ArrayAdd(targetValue, sourceValue)
        Loop Until ArrayZero(sourceValue)
    End Sub
    
End Class

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